CLASS X CBSE AND FOUNDATION COURSE

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How to Prepare Academic Course for Class X and Foundation
Class X is a crucial phase in a student life because it lays the basics of foundation for JEE and PMT Entrance exams. CBSE syllabus for Class X is prepared so as to introduce students to the very basics of Science & Math. CBSE Class X syllabus for science is divided into Physics, Chemistry and Biology. This gives students a good understanding of what these subjects are all about. Similarly, students are acknowledged to complex topics in Math like Trigonometry and Algebra.

As per Experts recommendation to students, it is very important to study the syllabus from the examination point of view as well as gain knowledge and clear concepts. This requires students to build interest in subjects and understand the various phenomena in the real world linked with the theoretical knowledge.

Though many parents disagree with the idea of the Foundation courses, but several others support the same. These courses are meant to sharpen the analytical skills of the students from an early age so that they develop a conceptual thinking, thus acquiring an advantage over their competitors from the beginning itself. It also gives directions to the students in terms of planning and they take up studies seriously from the beginning. It is a big debate as to whether such young students should enforce to prepare jee or pmt, as many of them would go just under parental pressure, as they would not know their interest areas. But many parents believe that the earlier, the better.

Objective For JEE and PMT Foundation Course is To make the students understand and master basic concepts in the subjects of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry and to focus on encouraging students to apply the concepts learnt to real-life situations. The programme will encourage school goers to look beyond textbooks for learning. It also help not only to understand better what is taught in regular school classes, but also to develop the acumen which will give them a distinct edge over the rest of their peers. This results in better performance in board or final exams. Starting from early preparation benefit for NTSE, NLSTSE, Science Olympiad and Cyber Olympiad.

Science Class 10 Syllabus

Course Structure

First Term Units Marks
I. Chemical Substances - Nature & Behaviour 33
II. World of Living 21
IV. Effects of Current 29
V. Natural Resources 7
  Total 90
Second Term Units Marks
I. Chemical Substances - Nature & Behaviour 23
II. World of Living 30
III. Natural Phenomenon 29
V. Natural Resources 8
  Total 90

First Term SA-I

Unit I: Chemical Substances - Nature and Behaviour

Chemical Reactions : Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications of a balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction.
Acids, Bases and Salts : Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH- ions, General properties, examples and uses, concept of pH scale(Definition relating to logarithm not required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of sodium hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris.
Metals and Non Metals : Properties of metals and non-metals, reactivity series, formation and properties of ionic compounds, basic metallurgical processes, corrosion and its prevention.

Unit II: World of Living

Life processes : "living being". Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals.
Control and co-ordination in animals and plants: Tropic movements in plants; Introduction to plant hormones; control and co-ordination in animals : nervous system; voluntary, involuntary and reflex action, chemical co-ordination: animal hormones.

Unit IV: Effects of Current

Electric current, potential difference and electric current. Ohm's law; Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Inter relation between P, V, I and R.
Magnetic effects of current : Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming's left hand rule. Electromagnetic induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current. Fleming's Right Hand Rule, Direct current. Alternating current : frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.

Unit V: Natural Resources

Sources of energy : Different forms of energy, conventional and non-conventional sources of energy: fossil fuels, solar energy; biogas; wind, water and tidal energy; nuclear energy. Renewable versus non-renewable sources.

Second Term SA-II

Unit I: Chemical Substances - Nature and Behaviour

Carbon compounds : Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon. Homologous series Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes), difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical properties of carbon compounds (combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents.
Periodic classification of elements : Need for classification, Modern periodic table, gradation in properties, valency, atomic number, metallic and non-metallic properties.

Unit II: World of Living

Reproduction : Reproduction in animal and plants (asexual and sexual) reproductive health-need for and methods of family planning. safe sex vs HIV/AIDS. Child bearing and women's health.
Heridity and evolution : Heredity; Mendel's contribution- Laws for inheritance of traits: Sex determination: brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution.

Unit III: Natural Phenomenon

Reflection of light at curved surfaces, Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required), magnification.
Refraction; laws of refraction, refractive index.
Refraction of light by spherical lens, Image formed by spherical lenses, Lens formula (Derivation not required), Magnification. Power of a lens; Functioning of a lens in human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses.
Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life.

Unit V: Natural Resources

Conservation of natural resources
Management of natural resources. Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wild life, coal and petroleum conservation. Examples of People's participation for conservation of natural resources.
The Regional environment : Big dams : advantages and limitations; alternatives if any. Water harvesting. Sustainability of natural resources.
Our environment : Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.

First Term Practicals

1. To find the pH of the following samples by using pH paper/universal indicator:
  • a. Dilute Hydrochloric Acid
  • b. Dilute NaOH solution
  • c. Dilute Ethanoic Acid solution
  • d. Lemon juice
  • e. Water
  • f. Dilute Sodium Bicarbonate solution
2. To study the properties of acids and bases (HCl & NaOH) by their reaction with:
  • a. Litmus solution (Blue/Red)
  • b. Zinc metal
  • c. Solid sodium carbonate
3. To perform and observe the following reactions and classify them into:
  • i. Combination reaction
  • ii. Decomposition reaction
  • iii. Displacement reaction
  • iv. Double displacement reaction
    • 1) Action of water on quick lime
    • 2) Action of heat on ferrous sulphate crystals
    • 3) Iron nails kept in copper sulphate solution
    • 4) Reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride solutions
4. i) To observe the action of Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals on the following salt solutions:
  • a. ZnSO4 (aq)
  • b. FeSO4 (aq)
  • c. CuSO4 (aq)
  • d. Al2(SO4)3 (aq)
ii) Arrange Zn, Fe, Cu and Al (metals) in the decreasing order of reactivity based on the above result.
5. To study the dependence of potential difference (V) across a resistor on the current (I) passing through it and determine its resistance. Also plot a graph between V and I.
6. To determine the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in series.
7 To determine the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in parallel.
8 To prepare a temporary mount of a leaf peel to show stomata.
9 To show experimentally that light is necessary for photosynthesis.
10 To show experimentally that carbon dioxide is given out during respiration.

Second Term Practicals

1. To study the following properties of acetic acid (ethanoic acid):
  • i) odour
  • ii) solubility in water
  • iii) effect on litmus
  • iv) reaction with sodium bicarbonate
2. To study saponification reaction for preparation of soap.
3. To study the comparative cleaning capacity of a sample of soap in soft and hard water.
4. To determine the focal length of:
  • i. Concave mirror,
  • ii. Convex lens,
by obtaining the image of a distant object.
5. To trace the path of a ray of light passing through a rectangular glass slab for different angles of incidence. Measure the angle of incidence, angle of refraction, angle of emergence and interpret the result.
6. To study (a) binary fission in Amoeba, and (b) budding in yeast with the help of prepared slides.
7. To trace the path of the rays of light through a glass prism.
8. To find the image distance for varying object distances in case of a convex lens and draw corresponding ray diagrams to show the nature of image formed.
9. To study homology and analogy with the help of models/charts of animals and models/ charts/ specimens of plants.
10. To identify the different parts of an embryo of a dicot seed (Pea, gram or red kidney bean).

Mathematics Class X Syllabus

Course Structure

First Term (SA-I)
Units Marks
I. Number System 11
II. Algebra 23
III. Geometry 17
IV. Trigonometry 22
V. Statistics 17
  Total 90

Second Term (SA-II)
Units Marks
II. Algebra (contd.) 23
III. Geometry (contd.) 17
IV. Trigonometry (contd.) 8
V. Probability 8
VI. Co-ordinate Geometry 11
VII. Mensuration 23
  Total 90

First Term Syllabus

UNIT I: NUMBER SYSTEMS

1. REAL NUMBERS
Euclid's division lemma, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic - statements after reviewing work done earlier and after illustrating and motivating through examples, Proofs of results - irrationality of √2, √3, √5, decimal expansions of rational numbers in terms of terminating/non-terminating recurring decimals.

UNIT II: ALGEBRA

1. POLYNOMIALS
Zeros of a polynomial. Relationship between zeros and coefficients of quadratic polynomials. Statement and simple problems on division algorithm for polynomials with real coefficients.
2. PAIR OF LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
Pair of linear equations in two variables and their graphical solution. Geometric representation of different possibilities of solutions/inconsistency. 
Algebraic conditions for number of solutions. Solution of a pair of linear equations in two variables algebraically - by substitution, by elimination and by cross multiplication method. Simple situational problems must be included. Simple problems on equations reducible to linear equations.

UNIT III: GEOMETRY

1. TRIANGLES
Definitions, examples, counter examples of similar triangles.
  1. (Prove) If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect the other two sides in distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the same ratio.
  2. (Motivate) If a line divides two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, the line is parallel to the third side.
  3. (Motivate) If in two triangles, the corresponding angles are equal, their corresponding sides are proportional and the triangles are similar.
  4. (Motivate) If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, their corresponding angles are equal and the two triangles are similar.
  5. (Motivate) If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of another triangle and the sides including these angles are proportional, the two triangles are similar.
  6. (Motivate) If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse, the triangles on each side of the perpendicular are similar to the whole triangle and to each other.
  7. (Prove) The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares on their corresponding sides.
  8. (Prove) In a right triangle, the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.
  9. (Prove) In a triangle, if the square on one side is equal to sum of the squares on the other two sides, the angles opposite to the first side is a right traingle.

UNIT IV: TRIGONOMETRY

1 . INTRODUCTION TO TRIGONOMETRY
Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right-angled triangle. Proof of their existence (well defined); motivate the ratios, whichever are defined at 0° and 90°. Values (with proofs) of the trigonometric ratios of 30°, 45° and 60°. Relationships between the ratios.
2. TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES
Proof and applications of the identity sin2A + cos2A = 1. Only simple identities to be given. Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles.

UNIT V: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY

1. STATISTICS
Mean, median and mode of grouped data (bimodal situation to be avoided). Cumulative frequency graph.

Second Term Syllabus

UNIT II: ALGEBRA (Contd.)

3. QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Standard form of a quadratic equation ax2+bx+c=0, (a ≠ 0). Solution of the quadratic equations (only real roots) by factorization, by completing the square and by using quadratic formula. Relationship between discriminant and nature of roots. 
Situational problems based on quadratic equations related to day to day activities to be incorporated.
4. ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS
Motivation for studying Arithmetic Progression Derivation of the nth term and sum of the first n terms of A.P. and their application in solving daily life problems.

UNIT III: GEOMETRY (Contd.)

2. CIRCLES
Tangents to a circle motivated by chords drawn from points coming closer and closer to the point.
  1. (Prove) The tangent at any point of a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact.
  2. (Prove) The lengths of tangents drawn from an external point to circle are equal.
3. CONSTRUCTIONS
  1. Division of a line segment in a given ratio (internally).
  2. Tangent to a circle from a point outside it.
  3. Construction of a triangle similar to a given triangle.

UNIT IV: TRIGONOMETRY

3. HEIGHTS AND DISTANCES
Simple and believable problems on heights and distances. Problems should not involve more than two right triangles. Angles of elevation / depression should be only 30°, 45°, 60°.

UNIT V: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY

2. PROBABILITY
Classical definition of probability. Simple problems on single events (not using set notation).

UNIT VI: COORDINATE GEOMETRY

1. LINES (In two-dimensions)
Concepts of coordinate geometry, graphs of linear equations. Distance formula. Section formula (internal division). Area of a triangle.

UNIT VII: MENSURATION

1. AREAS RELATED TO CIRCLES
Motivate the area of a circle; area of sectors and segments of a circle. Problems based on areas and perimeter / circumference of the above said plane figures. (In calculating area of segment of a circle, problems should be restricted to central angle of 60°, 90° and 120° only. Plane figures involving triangles, simple quadrilaterals and circle should be taken.)
2. SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES
(i) Problems on finding surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of the following: cubes, cuboids, spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinders/cones. Frustum of a cone.
(ii) Problems involving converting one type of metallic solid into another and other mixed problems. (Problems with combination of not more than two different solids be taken.)