CLASS IX CBSE AND FOUNDATION COURSE

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How to Prepare Academic Course for Class IX and Foundation
Class IX is a crucial phase in a student life because it lays the basics of foundation for JEE and PMT Entrance exams. CBSE syllabus for Class IX is prepared so as to introduce students to the very basics of Science & Math. CBSE Class IX syllabus for science is divided into Physics, Chemistry and Biology. This gives students a good understanding of what these subjects are all about. Similarly, students are acknowledged to complex topics in Math like Trigonometry and Algebra.

As per Experts recommendation to students, it is very important to study the syllabus from the examination point of view as well as gain knowledge and clear concepts. This requires students to build interest in subjects and understand the various phenomena in the real world linked with the theoretical knowledge.

Though many parents disagree with the idea of the Foundation courses, but several others support the same. These courses are meant to sharpen the analytical skills of the students from an early age so that they develop a conceptual thinking, thus acquiring an advantage over their competitors from the beginning itself. It also gives directions to the students in terms of planning and they take up studies seriously from the beginning. It is a big debate as to whether such young students should enforce to prepare jee or pmt, as many of them would go just under parental pressure, as they would not know their interest areas. But many parents believe that the earlier, the better.

Objective For JEE and PMT Foundation Course is To make the students understand and master basic concepts in the subjects of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry and to focus on encouraging students to apply the concepts learnt to real-life situations. The programme will encourage school goers to look beyond textbooks for learning. It also help not only to understand better what is taught in regular school classes, but also to develop the acumen which will give them a distinct edge over the rest of their peers. This results in better performance in board or final exams. Starting from early preparation benefit for NTSE, NLSTSE, Science Olympiad and Cyber Olympiad.

Science Class 9 Syllabus

Course Structure

First Term Units Marks
I. Matter - Its Nature & Behaviour 29
II. Organisation in Living World 18
III. Motion, Force and Work 30
V. Food; Food Production 13
  Total  90
Second Term Units Marks 
I. Matter - Its Nature & Behaviour 18
II. Organisation in Living World 26
III. Motion, Force and Work 36
IV. Our Environment 10
  Total  90

First Term Units

Unit I: Matter - Nature and Behaviour

Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics - shape, volume, density; change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation.
Nature of matter: Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogenous and homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions.

Unit II: Organization in the Living World

Cell - Basic Unit of life: Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes - basic structure, number. 
Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism: Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (four types in animals; meristematic and permanent tissues in plants).

Unit III: Motion, Force and Work

Motion: Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, equations of motion by graphical method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion.
Force and Newton's laws: Force and motion, Newton's laws of motion, inertia of a body, inertia and mass, momentum, force and acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of momentum, action and reaction forces.
Gravitation: Gravitation; universal law of gravitation, force of gravitation of the earth (gravity), acceleration due to gravity; mass and weight; free fall.

Unit V: Food Production

Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management; use of fertilizers, manures; protection from pests and diseases; organic farming.

Second Term Units

Unit I: Matter - Its Nature and Behaviour

Particle nature, basic units: atoms and molecules. Law of constant proportions. Atomic and molecular masses.
Mole Concept: Relationship of mole to mass of the particles and numbers. Valency. Chemical formula of common compounds.
Structure of atom: Electrons, protons and neutrons; Isotopes and isobars.

Unit II: Organization in the Living World

Biological Diversity: Diversity of plants and animals - basic issues in scientific naming, basis of classification. Hierarchy of categories / groups, Major groups of plants (salient features) (Bacteria, Thalophyta, Bryo phyta, Pteridophyta, gymnosperms and Angiosperms). Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates upto phyla and chordates upto classes).
Health and Diseases: Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, their causes and manifestation. Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and protozoans) and their prevention, Principles of treatment and prevention. Pulse Polio programmes.

Unit III: Motion, Force and Work

Floatation: Thrust and pressure. Archimedes' principle, buoyancy, elementary idea of relative density.
Work, energy and power: Work done by a force, energy, power; kinetic and potential energy; law of conservation of energy.
Sound: Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound; echo and SONAR. Structure of the human ear (auditory aspect only).

Unit IV: Our environment

Physical resources: Air, Water, Soil. Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating temperatures; movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India. Air, water and soil pollution (brief introduction). Holes in ozone layer and the probable damages. 
Bio-geo chemical cycles in nature: Water, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen.

First Term Practicals

1. To test (a) the presence of starch in the given food sample, (b) the presence of the adulterant metanil yellow in dal.
2. To prepare:
  • a) a true solution of common salt, sugar and alum
  • b) a suspension of soil, chalk powder and fine sand in water
  • c) a colloidal solution of starch in water and egg albumin/milk in water and distinguish between these on the basis of
    • transparency
    • filtration criterion
    • stability
3. To prepare
  • a) a mixture
  • b) a compound
using iron filings and sulphur powder and distinguish between these on the basis of:
  • i. appearance, i.e., homogeneity and heterogeneity
  • ii. behaviour towards a magnet
  • iii. behaviour towards carbon disulphide as a solvent
  • iv. effect of heat
4. To carry out the following reactions and classify them as physical or chemical changes:
  • a. Iron with copper sulphate solution in water
  • b. Burning of magnesium in air
  • c. Zinc with dilute sulphuric acid
  • d. Heating of copper sulphate
  • e. Sodium sulphate with barium chloride in the form of their solutions in water
5. To prepare stained temporary mounts of (a) onion peel and (b) human cheek cells and to record observations and draw their labeled diagrams.
6. To identify parenchyma and sclerenchyma tissues in plants, striped muscle fibers and nerve cells in animals, from prepared slides and to draw their labeled diagrams.
7. To separate the components of a mixture of sand, common salt and ammonium chloride (or camphor) by sublimation.
8. To determine the melting point of ice and the boiling point of water.
9. To establish relationship between weight of a rectangular wooden block lying on a horizontal table and the minimum force required to just move it using a spring balance.
10. To determine the mass percentage of water imbibed by raisins.

Second Term Practicals

1. To verify the Laws of reflection of sound.
2. To determine the density of solid (denser than water) by using a spring balance and a measuring cylinder.
3. To establish the relation between the loss in weight of a solid when fully immersed in
  • a. tap water
  • b. strongly salty water, with the weight of water displaced by it by taking at least two different solids.
4. To observe and compare the pressure exerted by a solid iron cuboid on fine sand/ wheat flour while resting on its three different faces and to calculate the pressure exerted in the three different cases.
5. To determine the velocity of a pulse propagated through a stretched string/slinky.
6. To study the characteristic of Spirogyra/Agaricus, Moss/Fern, Pinus ( either with male or female cone) and an Angiospermic plant. Draw and give two identifying features of the groups they belong to.
7. To observe the given pictures/charts/models of earthworm, cockroach, bony fish and bird. For each organism, draw their
picture and record:
  • a. one specific feature of its phylum.
  • b. one adaptive feature with reference to its habitat.
8. To verify the law of conservation of mass in a chemical reaction.
9. To study the external features of root, stem, leaf and flower of monocot and dicot plants.
10. To study the life cycle of mosquito.

CBSE Class 9 Mathematics Syllabus

First Term Units
Unit Marks
I Number System 17
II Algebra 25
III Geometry 37
IV Co-ordinate Geometry 6
V Mensuration 5
  Total 90

Second Term Units
Unit Marks
II Algebra (contd.) 16
III Geometry (contd.) 38
V Mensuration (contd.) 18
VI Statistics 10
VII Probability 8
  Total 90

First Term Syllabus


UNIT I: NUMBER SYSTEMS

1. REAL NUMBERS
  1. Review of representation of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers on the number line. Representation of terminating / non-terminating recurring decimals, on the number line through successive magnification. Rational numbers as recurring/terminating decimals.
  2. Examples of non-recurring / non-terminating decimals. Existence of non-rational numbers (irrational numbers) such as √2, √3 and their representation on the number line. Explaining that every real number is represented by a unique point on the number line and conversely, every point on the number line represents a unique real number.
  3. Existence of √x for a given positive real number x (visual proof to be emphasized).
  4. Definition of nth root of a real number.
  5. Recall of laws of exponents with integral powers. Rational exponents with positive real bases (to be done by particular cases, allowing learner to arrive at the general laws.)
  6. Rationalization (with precise meaning) of real numbers of the type 1/(a+b√x) and 1/(√x+√y) (and their combinations) where x and y are natural number and a and b are integers.

UNIT II: ALGEBRA

1. POLYNOMIALS 
Definition of a polynomial in one variable, with examples and counter examples. Coefficients of a polynomial, terms of a polynomial and zero polynomial. Degree of a polynomial. Constant, linear, quadratic and cubic polynomials. Monomials, binomials, trinomials. Factors and multiples. Zeros of a polynomial. Motivate and State the Remainder Theorem with examples. Statement and proof of the Factor Theorem. Factorization of ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 where a, b and c are real numbers, and of cubic polynomials using the Factor Theorem.
Recall of algebraic expressions and identities. Further verification of identities of the type (x + y + z)2 = x2+ y2 + z2 + 2xy + 2yz + 2zx, (x ± y)3 = x3 ± y3 ± 3xy (x ± y), x³ ± y³ = (x ± y) (x² ± xy + y²), x3 + y3 + z3 - 3xyz = (x + y + z) (x2 + y2 + z2 - xy - yz - zx) and their use in factorization of polynomials. Simple expressions reducible to these polynomials.

UNIT III: GEOMETRY

1. INTRODUCTION TO EUCLID'S GEOMETRY
History - Geometry in India and Euclid's geometry. Euclid's method of formalizing observed phenomenon into rigorous mathematics with definitions, common/obvious notions, axioms/postulates and theorems. The five postulates of Euclid. Equivalent versions of the fifth postulate. Showing the relationship between axiom and theorem, for example:
  • (Axiom) 1. Given two distinct points, there exists one and only one line through them.
  • (Theorem) 2. (Prove) Two distinct lines cannot have more than one point in common.
2. LINES AND ANGLES
  1. (Motivate) If a ray stands on a line, then the sum of the two adjacent angles so formed is 180° and the converse.
  2. (Prove) If two lines intersect, vertically opposite angles are equal.
  3. (Motivate) Results on corresponding angles, alternate angles, interior angles when a transversal intersects two parallel lines.
  4. (Motivate) Lines which are parallel to a given line are parallel.
  5. (Prove) The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180°.
  6. (Motivate) If a side of a triangle is produced, the exterior angle so formed is equal to the sum of the two interior opposite angles.
3. TRIANGLES
  1. (Motivate) Two triangles are congruent if any two sides and the included angle of one triangle is equal to any two sides and the included angle of the other triangle (SAS Congruence).
  2. (Prove) Two triangles are congruent if any two angles and the included side of one triangle is equal to any two angles and the included side of the other triangle (ASA Congruence).
  3. (Motivate) Two triangles are congruent if the three sides of one triangle are equal to three sides of the other triangle (SSS Congruence).
  4. (Motivate) Two right triangles are congruent if the hypotenuse and a side of one triangle are equal (respectively) to the hypotenuse and a side of the other triangle.
  5. (Prove) The angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal.
  6. (Motivate) The sides opposite to equal angles of a triangle are equal.
  7. (Motivate) Triangle inequalities and relation between 'angle and facing side' inequalities in triangles.

UNIT IV: COORDINATE GEOMETRY

1. COORDINATE GEOMETRY
The Cartesian plane, coordinates of a point, names and terms associated with the coordinate plane, notations, plotting points in the plane.

UNIT V: MENSURATION

1. AREAS
Area of a triangle using Heron's formula (without proof) and its application in finding the area of a quadrilateral.

Second Term Syllabus

The text of OTBA for SA-II will be from Unit - III, Chapter 4, Quadrilaterals

UNIT II: ALGEBRA (Contd.)

2. LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
Recall of linear equations in one variable. Introduction to the equation in two variables. Focus on linear equations of the type ax+by+c=0. Prove that a linear equation in two variables has infinitely many solutions and justify their being written as ordered pairs of real numbers, plotting them and showing that they seem to lie on a line. Examples, problems from real life, including problems on Ratio and Proportion and with algebraic and graphical solutions being done simultaneously.

UNIT III: GEOMETRY (Contd.)

4. QUADRILATERALS
  1. (Prove) The diagonal divides a parallelogram into two congruent triangles.
  2. (Motivate) In a parallelogram opposite sides are equal, and conversely.
  3. (Motivate) In a parallelogram opposite angles are equal, and conversely.
  4. (Motivate) A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if a pair of its opposite sides is parallel and equal.
  5. (Motivate) In a parallelogram, the diagonals bisect each other and conversely.
  6. (Motivate) In a triangle, the line segment joining the mid points of any two sides is parallel to the third side and (motivate) its converse.
5. AREA
Review concept of area, recall area of a rectangle.
  1. (Prove) Parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels have the same area.
  2. (Motivate) Triangles on the same (or equal base) base and between the same parallels are equal in area.
6. CIRCLES
Through examples, arrive at definitions of circle related concepts, radius, circumference, diameter, chord, arc, secant, sector, segment subtended angle.
  1. (Prove) Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the center and (motivate) its converse.
  2. (Motivate) The perpendicular from the center of a circle to a chord bisects the chord and conversely, the line drawn through the center of a circle to bisect a chord is perpendicular to the chord.
  3. (Motivate) There is one and only one circle passing through three given non-collinear points.
  4. (Motivate) Equal chords of a circle (or of congruent circles) are equidistant from the center (or their respective centers) and conversely.
  5. (Prove) The angle subtended by an arc at the center is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle.
  6. (Motivate) Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal.
  7. (Motivate) If a line segment joining two points subtends equal angle at two other points lying on the same side of the line containing the segment, the four points lie on a circle.
  8. (Motivate) The sum of either of the pair of the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180° and its converse.
7. CONSTRUCTIONS
  1. Construction of bisectors of line segments and angles of measure 60°, 90°, 45° etc., equilateral triangles.
  2. Construction of a triangle given its base, sum/difference of the other two sides and one base angle.
  3. Construction of a triangle of given perimeter and base angles.

UNIT V: MENSURATION (Contd.)

2. SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES
Surface areas and volumes of cubes, cuboids, spheres (including hemispheres) and right circular cylinders/cones.

UNIT VI: STATISTICS

Introduction to Statistics: Collection of data, presentation of data - tabular form, ungrouped / grouped, bar graphs, histograms (with varying base lengths), frequency polygons, qualitative analysis of data to choose the correct form of presentation for the collected data. Mean, median, mode of ungrouped data.

UNIT VII: PROBABILITY

History, Repeated experiments and observed frequency approach to probability. Focus is on empirical probability. (A large amount of time to be devoted to group and to individual activities to motivate the concept; the experiments to be drawn from real - life situations, and from examples used in the chapter on statistics).